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Physics

Physics is a central subject of study throughout formal education. It is relevant to everyone, offering a window to understand the universe. Some people think of physics as the Swiss knife of science.

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- Astrophysics
- Absolute Magnitude
- Astronomical Objects
- Astronomical Telescopes
- Black Body Radiation
- Classification by Luminosity
- Classification of Stars
- Cosmology
- Doppler Effect
- Exoplanet Detection
- Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams
- Hubble's Law
- Large Diameter Telescopes
- Quasars
- Radio Telescopes
- Reflecting Telescopes
- Stellar Spectral Classes
- Telescopes
- Atoms and Radioactivity
- Fission and Fusion
- Medical Tracers
- Nuclear Reactors
- Radiotherapy
- Random Nature of Radioactive Decay
- Thickness Monitoring
- Circular Motion and Gravitation
- Applications of Circular Motion
- Centripetal and Centrifugal Force
- Circular Motion and Free-Body Diagrams
- Fundamental Forces
- Gravitational and Electric Forces
- Gravity on Different Planets
- Inertial and Gravitational Mass
- Vector Fields
- Classical Mechanics
- 3D Euclidean Space
- Acceleration in Projectile Motion
- Angular Acceleration and Centripetal Acceleration
- Angular Frequency and Period
- Angular Momentum of One Particle
- Attractor
- Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity
- Basis Vector
- Calculus of Variations
- Canonical Transformations
- Cartesian to Polar Coordinates
- Center of Mass for a Rigid Body
- Chaos Theory
- Configuration Space
- Conservative Force
- Coupled Oscillators
- Cross Section
- Damped Driven Oscillator
- Differential Cross Section
- Euler Angles
- Euler-Lagrange Equations
- External Forces
- Frame Analysis
- Galilean Transformation
- Generalized Momenta
- Hamilton's Equations of Motion
- Hamilton's Principle
- Hamiltonian
- Hamiltonian Density
- Hamiltonian Mechanics
- Ignorable Coordinates
- Impact Parameter
- Inertia Tensor
- Inertial Frame of Reference
- Integrable Systems
- Interaction Energy
- Kinetic Energy of a Particle
- Lagrangian
- Lagrangian Constraints
- Lagrangian Density
- Lagrangian Mechanics
- Legendre Transformation
- Linear Analysis
- Liouville's Theorem
- Matrices in Physics
- Motion of a Particle
- Multiparticle System
- Noether's Theorem
- Non Uniform Acceleration
- Normal Modes
- Normal and Binormal Vectors
- Parallel Axis Theorem
- Perturbation Theory
- Phase Space
- Poisson Bracket
- Position and Displacement
- Power Physics
- Principle of Least Action
- Quantum Field Theory
- Relative Motion in 2 Dimensions
- Rigid Body Dynamics
- Rigid Body Rotation
- Rolling Motion
- Rotational Motion Equations
- Scattering Angle
- Simple Harmonic Oscillator
- Stress Energy Tensor
- Symmetry and Conservation Laws
- Symplectic Methods
- Tensors
- Three Coupled Oscillators
- Torque Vector
- Transformation Between Coordinate Systems
- Two Coupled Oscillators
- Two Dimensional Polar Coordinates
- Two Particles
- Vector Operations
- Vectors in Multiple Dimensions
- Velocity and Position by Integration
- Velocity of a Projectile
- Conservation of Energy and Momentum
- Dynamics
- Application of Newton's Second Law
- Buoyancy
- Drag Force
- Dynamic Systems
- Free Body Diagrams
- Normal Force
- Springs Physics
- Superposition of Forces
- Tension
- Electric Charge Field and Potential
- Boundary Conditions for Circuits
- Charge Distribution
- Charged Particle in Uniform Electric Field
- Conservation of Charge
- Electric Field Between Two Parallel Plates
- Electric Field Lines
- Electric Field of Multiple Point Charges
- Electric Force
- Electric Potential Due to Dipole
- Electric Potential due to a Point Charge
- Electrical Systems
- Equipotential Lines
- First Order Circuits
- Natural Response
- Second Order Circuits
- Second Order Op Amp Circuit
- Step Response
- Transient Analysis
- Electricity
- Ammeter
- Attraction and Repulsion
- Band Theory
- Basics of Electricity
- Batteries
- Branch Analysis
- Bridge Circuit
- Cable Capacitance
- Capacitors in Series and Parallel
- Characteristic Impedance of a Cable
- Circuit Schematic
- Circuit Symbols
- Circuits
- Coaxial Cable
- Complex Impedance
- Conductance
- Current Density
- Current-Voltage Characteristics
- DC Circuit
- Delta Y
- Dependent Sources
- Drift Velocity
- Drude Model
- Effective Resistance
- Electric Cables
- Electric Cells
- Electric Current
- Electric Generators
- Electric Motor
- Electrical Power
- Electrical Resistance
- Electricity Generation
- Electronics
- Electronics and Electrical Systems
- Emf and Internal Resistance
- Fiber Optic Cable
- Free Electron Model
- Joule Heating
- Kelvin Bridge
- Kirchhoff's Junction Rule
- Kirchhoff's Laws
- Kirchhoff's Loop Rule
- National Grid Physics
- Network Theorems
- Nodal Analysis
- Non Ohmic Conductor
- Norton Theorem
- Ohm's Law
- Ohmic Conductor
- Potential Difference
- Potentiometers
- Power Rating
- Power Transmission
- RC Circuit
- Reciprocity Theorem
- Resistance
- Resistance and Resistivity
- Resistivity
- Resistors
- Resistors in Parallel
- Resistors in Series
- Resistors in Series and Parallel
- Series and Parallel Circuits
- Shielded Cable
- Simple Circuit
- Static Electricity
- Superconductivity
- Superposition Theorem
- Theoretical Capacity
- Theoretical Energy
- Thevenin Theorem
- Time Constant of RC Circuit
- Transformer
- Voltage Divider
- Voltmeter
- Wheatstone Bridge
- Electricity and Magnetism
- Benjamin Franklin's Kite Experiment
- Changing Magnetic Field
- Circuit Analysis
- Diamagnetic Levitation
- Difference Amplifier
- Differential Amplifier
- Electric Dipole
- Electric Field Energy
- Energy Stored in Inductor
- Ideal Op Amp
- Inductor Examples
- Inductors
- Inductors in Parallel
- Inductors in Series
- Inverting Amplifier
- Linear Op Amp
- Magnets
- Miller's Theorem
- Non Linear Op Amp
- Oersted's Experiment
- Op Amp
- Op Amp Gain
- Standard Capacitor Values
- Standard Inductor Values
- Summing Amplifier
- Voltage
- Electromagnetism
- 1D Wave Equation
- 3 Phase Generator
- 3D Delta Function
- AC Motor
- Ampere's Law
- Ampere's Law Magnetic Field
- Auxiliary Field
- Biot Savart Law
- Bipolar Junction Transistor
- Bound Charge
- Bound Current
- Boundary Conditions for Electromagnetic Fields
- Capacitors
- Coulomb Gauge
- Curl of the Magnetic Field
- Current Source
- Current Sources in Parallel
- Current Sources in Series
- Current to Magnetic Field
- Curvlinear
- DC Motors
- Delta Operator
- Dielectric Boundary Conditions
- Dielectric Constant
- Differential Calculus
- Diode Model
- Diodes
- Displacement Vector
- Divergence of Electrostatic Field
- Divergence of Magnetic Field
- Divergence of a Vector Field
- Electric Dipole Radiation
- Electric Field of a Continous Charge Distribution
- Electric Field of a Dipole
- Electric Susceptibility
- Electromagnetic Field
- Electromagnetic Field Tensor
- Electromagnetic Four Potential
- Electromagnetic Potential Definition
- Electromagnetic Sources
- Electromagnetic Waves in Matter
- Electromagnetic Waves in a Vacuum
- Electromotive Force
- Electrostatic Potential Energy
- Electrostatics Boundary Conditions
- Electrostatics in Vacuum
- Energy in Dielectric System
- Energy in a Magnetic Field
- FET Configuration
- FETs
- Ferromagnetism
- Force on a Conductor
- Forces on Dielectrics
- Gauss Law
- Gauss Theorem
- Gradient Theorem
- Helmholtz Theorem
- Ideal Diode
- Induced Electric Field Formula
- Induced Surface Charge
- Integral Calculus
- JFET
- Jefimenko's Equations
- Laplace's Equation
- Lienard Wiechert Potential
- Line Integral
- Linear Dielectric
- Linear Media
- Lorentz Force Law
- Lorentz Transformations
- MOSFETs
- Magnetic Charge
- Magnetic Dipole Radiation
- Magnetic Moment
- Magnetic Permeability
- Magnetic Scalar Potential
- Magnetic Susceptibility
- Magnetic Vector Potential
- Magnetization
- Magnetostatic in Matter
- Magnetostatics
- Maxwell's Equations
- Maxwell's Equations Differential Form
- Maxwell's Equations Integral Form
- Method of Images
- Monochromatic Wave
- Motional EMF
- Motor Characteristics
- Multipole Expansion
- Mutual Inductance
- NPN and PNP Transistor
- One Dimensional Laplace Equation
- PN Junction
- Poisson Equation
- Polar Molecule
- Polarization Vector
- Potentials
- Proper Time
- Real Transformer
- Rectangular Waveguide
- Relativistic Dynamics
- Relativistic Electrodynamics
- Relativistic Kinematics
- Relativistic Mechanics
- Relativistic Momentum
- Resonant Cavity
- Retarded Potential
- Scalar and Vector Fields
- Semiconductor Diode
- Simple Motor
- Sinusoidal Wave
- Spacetime
- Spherical Coordinates
- Stokes Theorem
- Surface Charge
- Surface Integral
- TE Mode
- TEM Mode
- TM Mode
- The Dirac Delta Function
- The Transfer of Energy by Electromagnetic Waves
- Three Dimensional Laplace Equation
- Torque on Magnetic Dipole
- Two Dimensional Laplace Equation
- Uniqueness Theorem
- Vector Algebra
- Voltage Source
- Voltage Sources in Parallel
- Voltage Sources in Series
- Volume Integral
- Waveguide
- Work in Electrostatics
- Electrostatics
- Energy Physics
- Big Energy Issues
- Conservative and Non Conservative Forces
- Efficiency in Physics
- Elastic Potential Energy
- Electrical Energy
- Energy and the Environment
- Forms of Energy
- Geothermal Energy
- Gravitational Potential Energy
- Heat Engines
- Heat Transfer Efficiency
- Kinetic Energy
- Mechanical Power
- Potential Energy
- Potential Energy and Energy Conservation
- Pulling Force
- Renewable Energy Sources
- Wind Energy
- Work Energy Principle
- Engineering Physics
- 2 Bit Adder
- Angular Momentum
- Angular Work and Power
- Binary Representation
- Cascade of Adders
- Combinational Circuit
- Converting Analogue to Digital
- Demultiplexer
- Digital Circuits
- Digital to Analog Conversion
- Electric Switch
- Encoder and Decoder
- Engine Cycles
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Flip Flop Circuit
- Logic Switch
- MOSFET Switch
- Moment of Inertia
- Multiplexor
- Non-Flow Processes
- PV Diagrams
- Reversed Heat Engines
- Rotational Kinetic Energy
- Second Law and Engines
- Thermodynamics and Engines
- Torque and Angular Acceleration
- Voltage Levels
- Famous Physicists
- Fields in Physics
- Alternating Currents
- Capacitance
- Capacitor Charge
- Capacitor Discharge
- Coulomb's Law
- Dielectric
- Electric Field Strength
- Electric Fields
- Electric Potential
- Electromagnetic Induction
- Energy Stored by a Capacitor
- Equipotential Surface
- Escape Velocity
- Gravitational Field Strength
- Gravitational Fields
- Gravitational Potential
- Magnetic Fields
- Magnetic Flux Density
- Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Linkage
- Moving Charges in a Magnetic Field
- Newton’s Laws
- Operation of a Transformer
- Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Planetary Orbits
- Synchronous Orbits
- Fluids
- Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure
- Application of Bernoulli's Equation
- Archimedes' Principle
- Conservation of Energy in Fluids
- Fluid Flow
- Fluid Systems
- Force and Pressure
- Force
- Conservation of Momentum
- Contact Forces
- Elastic Forces
- Force and Motion
- Gravity
- Impact Forces
- Moment Physics
- Moments Levers and Gears
- Moments and Equilibrium
- Pressure
- Resultant Force
- Safety First
- Time Speed and Distance
- Velocity and Acceleration
- Work Done
- Fundamentals of Physics
- Further Mechanics and Thermal Physics
- Bottle Rocket
- Charles law
- Circular Motion
- Diesel Cycle
- Gas Laws
- Heat Transfer
- Heat Transfer Experiments
- Ideal Gas Model
- Ideal Gases
- Kinetic Theory of Gases
- Models of Gas Behaviour
- Newton's Law of Cooling
- Periodic Motion
- Rankine Cycle
- Resonance
- Simple Harmonic Motion
- Simple Harmonic Motion Energy
- Temperature
- Thermal Equilibrium
- Thermal Expansion
- Thermal Physics
- Volume
- Work in Thermodynamics
- Geometrical and Physical Optics
- Kinematics Physics
- Air Resistance
- Angular Kinematic Equations
- Average Velocity and Acceleration
- Displacement, Time and Average Velocity
- Frame of Reference
- Free Falling Object
- Kinematic Equations
- Motion in One Dimension
- Motion in Two Dimensions
- Rotational Motion
- Uniformly Accelerated Motion
- Linear Momentum
- Magnetism
- Ampere force
- Earth's Magnetic Field
- Fleming's Left Hand Rule
- Induced Potential
- Magnetic Forces and Fields
- Motor Effect
- Particles in Magnetic Fields
- Permanent and Induced Magnetism
- Magnetism and Electromagnetic Induction
- Eddy Current
- Faraday's Law
- Induced Currents
- Inductance
- LC Circuit
- Lenz's Law
- Magnetic Field of a Current-Carrying Wire
- Magnetic Flux
- Magnetic Materials
- Monopole vs Dipole
- RL Circuit
- Measurements
- Mechanics and Materials
- Acceleration Due to Gravity
- Bouncing Ball Example
- Bulk Properties of Solids
- Centre of Mass
- Collisions and Momentum Conservation
- Conservation of Energy
- Density
- Elastic Collisions
- Electromechanical Actuators
- Force Energy
- Friction
- Graphs of Motion
- Linear Motion
- Linear Motor
- Materials
- Materials Energy
- Moments
- Momentum
- Power and Efficiency
- Projectile Motion
- Scalar and Vector
- Stepper Motors
- Terminal Velocity
- Vector Problems
- Work and Energy
- Young's Modulus
- Medical Physics
- Absorption of X-Rays
- CT Scanners
- Defects of Vision
- Defects of Vision and Their Correction
- Diagnostic X-Rays
- Effective Half Life
- Electrocardiography
- Fibre Optics and Endoscopy
- Gamma Camera
- Hearing Defects
- High Energy X-Rays
- Lenses
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Noise Sensitivity
- Non Ionising Imaging
- Physics of Vision
- Physics of the Ear
- Physics of the Eye
- Radioactive Implants
- Radionuclide Imaging Techniques
- Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy
- Structure of the Ear
- Ultrasound Imaging
- X-Ray Image Processing
- X-Ray Imaging
- Modern Physics
- Bohr Model of the Atom
- Disintegration Energy
- Franck Hertz Experiment
- Ionization Gauge
- Ionized Gas
- Linear Potentiometer
- Magnetometer
- Mass Energy Equivalence
- Nuclear Reaction
- Nucleus Structure
- Optical Encoder
- Photodiode
- Photoelectric Effect in Photocells
- Photoresistor
- Pressure Gauges
- Quantization of Energy
- Rotary Encoder
- Sensors
- Sound Sensor
- Spectral Lines
- The Discovery of the Atom
- Thermistors
- Thermocouples
- Transduction
- Wave Function
- Nuclear Physics
- Alpha Beta and Gamma Radiation
- Binding Energy
- Half Life
- Induced Fission
- Mass and Energy
- Nuclear Instability
- Nuclear Radius
- Radioactive Decay
- Radioactivity
- Rutherford Scattering
- Safety of Nuclear Reactors
- Oscillations
- Energy Time Graph
- Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Hooke's Law
- Kinetic Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Mechanical Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Pendulum
- Period of Pendulum
- Period, Frequency and Amplitude
- Phase Angle
- Physical Pendulum
- Restoring Force
- Simple Pendulum
- Spring-Block Oscillator
- Torsional Pendulum
- Velocity
- Particle Model of Matter
- Physical Quantities and Units
- Converting Units
- Physical Quantities
- SI Prefixes
- Standard Form Physics
- Units Physics
- Use of SI Units
- Physics of Motion
- Acceleration
- Angular Acceleration
- Angular Displacement
- Angular Velocity
- Centrifugal Force
- Centripetal Force
- Displacement
- Equilibrium
- Forces of Nature Physics
- Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa Experiment
- Inclined Plane
- Inertia
- Mass in Physics
- Speed Physics
- Static Equilibrium
- Quantum Physics
- Addition Theorem Spherical Harmonics
- Adjoint Representation
- Angular Momentum Coupling
- Born Rule
- Bound State
- Classical Angular Momentum
- Classical Mechanics vs Quantum Mechanics
- Clebsch Gordan Coefficients
- Coherent State
- Compton Scattering
- Creation and Annihilation Operators
- Degenerate Perturbation Theory
- Delta Function Potential
- Density Matrix
- Dirac Notation
- Double Slit Experiment
- Ehrenfest Theorem
- Equipartition Theorem
- Exchange Operator
- Expectation Value Quantum Mechanics
- Fermi Golden Rule
- Fermions and Bosons
- Finite Square Well
- Fock Space
- Free Particle in Quantum Mechanics
- Geometric Rotation
- Heisenberg Picture
- Hermite Polynomials
- Hermitian Operator
- Hilbert Space
- Hydrogen Spectrum
- Hydrogen Wave Function
- Identical Particles
- Identical Particles in Quantum Mechanics
- Infinite Square Well
- Linear Operators in Hilbert Spaces
- Normalization of the Wave Function
- Observables
- Pauli Matrices
- Perturbation in Quantum Mechanics
- Planck Postulate
- Plancks Quantum Theory
- Postulates of Quantum Mechanics
- Probabilistic Mechanics
- Quantum Angular Momentum
- Quantum Conservation
- Quantum Entanglement
- Quantum Harmonic Oscillator
- Quantum Measurement
- Quantum Mechanics
- Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions
- Quantum Model of Hydrogen Atom
- Quantum Orbital Angular Momentum
- Quantum Physics Basics
- Quantum Representation
- Quantum Spin
- Rayleigh Jeans Law
- Rotation Operator
- Rotational Invariance
- Schodinger Equation Example
- Schrodinger Equation
- Schrödinger's Cat
- Spherical Harmonics
- Spin Properties
- Statistical Quantum Mechanics
- Stefan Boltzmann Law
- Stern Gerlach Experiment
- Symmetrization Postulate
- Tensor Product of Hilbert Spaces
- Thermal Radiation
- Time Independent Schrodinger Equation
- Two State Quantum System
- Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics
- Variational Principle Quantum
- Zeeman Effect
- Radiation
- Antiparticles
- Antiquark
- Atomic Model
- Classification of Particles
- Collisions of Electrons with Atoms
- Conservation Laws
- Electromagnetic Radiation and Quantum Phenomena
- Isotopes Radiation
- Neutron Number
- Particles
- Photons
- Protons
- Quark Physics
- Specific Charge
- The Photoelectric Effect
- Wave-Particle Duality
- Rotational Dynamics
- Angular Impulse
- Angular Kinematics
- Angular Motion and Linear Motion
- Connecting Linear and Rotational Motion
- Orbital Trajectory
- Rotational Equilibrium
- Rotational Inertia
- Satellite Orbits
- Third Law of Kepler
- Scientific Method Physics
- Data Collection
- Data Representation
- Drawing Conclusions
- Equations in Physics
- Uncertainties and Evaluations
- Solid State Physics
- 3D Lattice
- Amorphous Solid
- Amorphous Solid Structure
- Anisotropy
- Biopolymers
- Body Centered Cubic
- Bose Einstein Condensate
- Bragg's Law
- Brownian Motion
- Chemical Bonds
- Compressibility
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Cooper Pairing
- Critical Field
- Crystal Structure
- Crystallography
- Cubic Close Packing
- DC Conductivity
- Diatomic Lattices
- Doped Semiconductor
- Double-Slit Experiment with Electrons
- Effective Nuclear Charge
- Eigenstate
- Elastic Strain
- Electron Theory
- Energy Scale
- Fundamental Lattices
- Hexagonal Close Packed
- Hierarchical Structure
- Hydrogen Ionic Bond
- Interstitial Defect
- Isotropy
- Lattice Enthalpy
- Lattice Translation Vectors
- Lattice Vibration
- Lattices
- Local Field
- Locus and Loci
- Meissner Effect
- Miller Indices
- Neutron Scattering
- Null Resistivity
- Ordered Structure
- Pair Distribution Function
- Pauli Repulsion
- Perfect Crystal
- Phonon
- Radial Distribution Function
- Random Coil
- Scattering
- Semiconductor Devices
- Short Range Order
- Simple Cubic Unit Cell
- Solids
- Sommerfeld Theory
- Specific Heat of a Solid
- Stress Components
- Structure of Periodic Table
- Substitutional Defect
- Symmetry in Crystals
- Translation Vector
- Translational Symmetry
- Vacancy Defect
- Van der Waals Attraction
- X Ray Scattering
- Yield Stress
- Space Physics
- Thermodynamics
- Heat Radiation
- Thermal Conductivity
- Thermal Efficiency
- Thermodynamic Diagram
- Thermodynamic Force
- Thermodynamic and Kinetic Control
- Torque and Rotational Motion
- Centripetal Acceleration and Centripetal Force
- Conservation of Angular Momentum
- Force and Torque
- Muscle Torque
- Newton's Second Law in Angular Form
- Simple Machines
- Unbalanced Torque
- Translational Dynamics
- Centripetal Force and Velocity
- Critical Speed
- Free Fall and Terminal Velocity
- Gravitational Acceleration
- Kinetic Friction
- Object in Equilibrium
- Orbital Period
- Resistive Force
- Spring Force
- Static Friction
- Turning Points in Physics
- Cathode Rays
- Discovery of the Electron
- Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
- Electromagnetic Waves
- Electron Microscopes
- Electron Specific Charge
- Length Contraction
- Michelson-Morley Experiment
- Millikan's Experiment
- Newton's and Huygens' Theories of Light
- Photoelectricity
- Relativistic Mass and Energy
- Special Relativity
- Thermionic Electron Emission
- Time Dilation
- Wave Particle Duality of Light
- Wave Optics
- 4th Maxwell Equation
- Aberrations
- Amplitude of Wave
- Atmospheric Aberration
- Cameras
- Chromatic Aberration
- Coded Aperture
- Coma Aberration
- Converging Lens
- Convex Mirrors
- Distortion
- Diverging Lens
- Electromagnetic Energy
- Electromagnetic Momentum
- Energy and Frequency Relationship
- Energy of a Photon
- Field Curvature
- First Order Theory
- Focal Length
- Focal Points
- Geometrical Optics
- How Are Electromagnetic Waves Produced
- Human Eyes
- Image Formed by Plane Mirror
- Intensity and Amplitude Relationship
- Lens Maker Equation
- Light Particles
- Light Prism
- Light Wave
- Linear Wave
- Magnifiers
- Momentum of a Photon
- Non Linear Wave
- Oblique Ray Method
- Optical Instruments
- Parallel Beam
- Path of Light
- Pinhole Cameras
- Plancks Law
- Plane Electromagnetic Wave
- Principal Point
- Prism Light Refraction
- Propagation of Light
- Radiation Pressure
- Rectilinear Propagation
- Reflection at a Spherical Surface
- Spherical Aberration
- Spherical Mirror
- Standing Electromagnetic Waves
- Superposition of Waves
- Taylor Expansions
- Telephoto Lenses
- The Nature of Colour
- Thick Lens Formula
- Thick Lenses
- Third Order Theory
- Total Internal Reflection
- Virtual Image
- Wave Equations
- X Ray Telescope
- Waves Physics
- Acoustics
- Applications of Ultrasound
- Applications of Waves
- Capillary Waves
- Diffraction
- Diffraction Gratings
- Doppler Effect in Light
- Earthquake Shock Waves
- Echolocation
- Fourier Analysis Waves
- Gravity Waves
- Group Velocity
- Harmonics
- Image Formation by Lenses
- Interference
- Light
- Longitudinal Wave
- Longitudinal and Transverse Waves
- Love Waves
- Mirror
- Oscilloscope
- Phase Difference
- Phase Velocity
- Polarisation
- Progressive Waves
- Properties of Waves
- Ray Diagrams
- Ray Tracing Mirrors
- Rayleigh Waves
- Reflection
- Refraction
- Refraction at a Plane Surface
- Resonance in Sound Waves
- Seismic Waves
- Snell's law
- Spectral Colour
- Standing Waves
- Stationary Waves
- Superposition of Two Waves
- Total Internal Reflection in Optical Fibre
- Transverse Wave
- Ultrasound
- Vibrating String
- Water Wave
- Wave Characteristics
- Wave Packet
- Wave Speed
- Waves in Communication
- X-rays
- Work Energy and Power
- Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
- Dissipative Force
- Energy Dissipation
- Energy in Pendulum
- Force and Potential Energy
- Force vs. Position Graph
- Orbiting Objects
- Potential Energy Graphs and Motion
- Spring Potential Energy
- Total Mechanical Energy
- Translational Kinetic Energy
- Work Energy Theorem
- Work and Kinetic Energy

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Jetzt kostenlos anmeldenPhysics is a central subject of study throughout formal education. It is relevant to everyone, offering a window to understand the universe. Some people think of physics as the Swiss knife of science.

Students of engineering, chemistry, and biology cover many physics topics too. A good grasp of the basics of physics can help you understand technical problems and models in other science and engineering fields.

No matter which class you are currently in or which school you are attending, StudySmarter has something for everyone! From modern particle accelerators on the left to the most basic swing on the right, all devices and phenomena in the world include physics.

The free content at StudySmarter can help you prepare for different levels of study and exams in physics. In addition, the StudySmarter app:

Creates an intelligent learning plan just for you.

Tracks your progress and motivates you with badges and awards.

Lets you quickly create notes and flashcards and share them with other students in your class. You can also join a wider learning community of other physics students.

The word ‘physics’ comes from ancient Greek and means ‘knowledge of nature’, although physics is older than this. Other cultures knew it as ‘the study of natural phenomena’, and the knowledge obtained was used to predict, calculate, and create applications, including:

Rudimentary electroplating from the Moche culture of ancient Peru, around 100-700 AC.

Magnetism studies in ancient China, around 400 BC.

Scientific method and reproducibility of results in ancient Egypt/Iran, around 1000 AC.

Prediction of astronomical events based on observations and measurements in Mexico, around 500 BC.

First philosophy of atomism in India, around 200-600 BC.

From old roman aqueducts to modern space technology, physics has long been a tool to create and develop solutions, enabling us to modify our world.

In modern times, physics has matured into a well-defined system of knowledge. This knowledge is used at any scale from atoms to galaxies and in any discipline from medicine to engineering.

Physics is divided into theoretical physics and experimental physics.

**Theoretical physics** focuses on making laws, theories and hypotheses that can describe patterns or things observed in the world.

**Experimental physics** makes observations on different phenomena using carefully designed experiments through the scientific method, which uses evidence to justify a belief or knowledge.

Experimental physics will observe patterns that theoretical physics will later try to describe. Theoretical physics makes predictions and creates models, and experimental physics can corroborate these observations.

Physics may be highly theoretical, but it converts a lot of knowledge into applications. Here’s a list of areas that use physics:

**Medicine**: Imaging techniques to observe internal parts of the body using sound or radiation, radiotherapy to target cancer cells, optics for implants in the eye, creating devices for endoscopy. Mechanical engineering: Design of devices modelled after the laws of movement and energy exchange interactions.**Aerospace**: Applied theoretical aerodynamics for designing planes and other aircraft. Energy industry: Applications of thermal and energy exchanges and the study of electricity to generate and consume energy.**Electrical engineering and electronics**: applied/theoretical knowledge modelling, designing and creating circuits, electronic devices and electrical networks.**Sensors**: Used in physical chemistry, thermal engineering, optics, and others to create devices that can measure data.Optics: Applications for sensing and manipulating visible light and other electromagnetic spectra.

**Naval**: Fluid mechanics and its applications to seafaring and ship technology.**Materials and structures**: Knowledge of the forces applied to structures and objects. The composition of materials and how this composition can affect structures or the objects used in construction, medicine and other areas.**Food industry**: applications that range from sterilisation to sample analysis.

StudySmarter covers the following topics in physics.

**Physical quantities and units**: how to use units correctly and carry out calculations.**Measurements**: how to measure directly and estimate errors in our measurements.**Radiation**: important parts, laws and characteristics of the subatomic world, covering the atom, antimatter and electromagnetic radiation.**Waves**: laws and characteristics that can be applied to wave phenomena, from ocean waves to sound and light.**Mechanics and materials**: Laws of motion, kinetic and potential energy of objects. Properties of materials such as elasticity, density, and the use of vectors and scalars.**Electricity**: The application of electricity to basic circuits, including resistances and power sources.**Further mechanics and thermal mechanics**: Heat and how it moves between objects. Systems that move in circular motion and systems that describe an oscillatory pattern (harmonic systems).**Fields**: Forces produced without contact such as gravity, magnetic forces and electrical forces. How planets and charges move in these fields.**Astrophysics**: Observational tools such as telescopes and radio telescopes, and how they work. Planets and stars. Basic mechanics of physical laws, such as the doppler effect, Hubble law, and black body radiation.**Medical physics**: applications of physics in medicine.**Applications of physics**: Thermodynamics and rotational mechanics.**Turning points in physics**: moments that changed physics forever.

Physics requires an understanding of some areas of mathematics, including:

Calculus.

Differential equations.

Statistics.

Probability.

Algebra.

Mathematical analysis.

Study Smarter also provides topics and materials for chemistry, biology, and many other scientific areas related to physics.

StudySmarter provides summaries, key takeaways, and flashcards for each topic.

**Summaries**: Summaries help you to understand the subject more intuitively without losing the formality of physics. They include key formulae and easy to follow examples, and the content is friendly and approachable.

**Key takeaways**: Detailing important information that you need to remember from each summary.

**Flashcards**: Questions that challenge what you read and what you understand. The questions mix content from the article you read, challenging you through the process in a non-linear way. The flashcards include some easier problems with hints on how to solve them, theoretical questions and multiple-choice questions.

Flashcards in Physics17031

Start learningWho discovered the electron?

J. J. Thomson.

When was the electron discovered?

In 1897.

Were cathode ray tubes used in the discovery of the electron?

Yes, they were.

What was the first subatomic particle that was discovered?

Electron.

Did the discovery of the electron disprove the idea of an indivisible atom?

Yes, it did.

Who proposed the theory of special relativity?

Albert Einstein.

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How would you like to learn this content?

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